Updating Zorro 2.30 to Zorro 2.35 / 2.36
- You can update a live trading Zorro without
open trades. Please see under Trading
how to update a live system.
- If you get a syntax error with
a script that worked in previous versions, check if one
of its variables,
functions, or definitions had accidentally the same name as a
newly added keyword.
Deprecated keywords are collected in legacy.h,
which can be fully or partially included when needed.
- If you get a
backtest result to the previous version, compare the logs. Differences
can be caused by newer price histories, updated asset parameters,
different strategy settings, or different
WFO cycles or backtest periods. Testing a Z system requires recent
price data, so make sure to get it from the Zorro download page.
- If you've modified Zorro.ini,
Z.ini, or an included
your modifications will be overwritten by the installation. For
keeping your settings, use individual asset lists, store the Z.ini
settings in individual .ini files (Z1.ini,
Z2.ini, etc.), and copy your Zorro.ini settings
- The MT4 bridge was changed for supporting the GET_POSITION
- The keywords ExitTime, TradeExitTime,
Weekend, assetSwitch have been moved to
- Setting StopFactor at 1
causes stops to be managed by the broker only.
- BR_SLEEP is now unaffected by
- The OVERRIDE flag now also affects
data downloads from brokers.
Zorro 2.37.2 beta (in development)
The latest published beta version is
available on the Download Page. Zorro S features
can be unlocked in beta versions with a valid Zorro license. Z strategies
are not included in beta versions. A list of fixed bugs can
be found under bugs.
Future Zorro features
If you want a new Zorro function or feature, there are two ways to get it.
You can either pay us for implementing it, and donate it to the community. Or you can suggest it on the
in the Zorro Future
you can also comment or support features suggested by other users. We
normally implement suggested features when they are useful
(give a usage example), popular
other users), backwards compatible
(won't break existing
scripts), and efficient
(save code in a script). How long it takes depends on the usefulness of the
feature and how hard it is to implement. Donated features have priority.
Features planned for the next releases:
- Overcoming the 32-bit limit for training and backtests (Zorro
S; in development).
- A new Z system based on range market ineffectivity for currency
portfolios (Zorro S; in development).
- Interactive chart improvements - vertical scrolling, crosshair, live
- Licensing system for compiled scripts (Zorro S).
- Support for .cpp scripts by directly calling the VC++ compiler and
Zorro Release History
Zorro 2.35 (February 2021)
- The account limit of the free Zorro version was raised from $7000 to
- External optimization algorithms can be used with the
parameters function (Zorro S required).
- Prices of open option trades are not anymore updated outside market hours when
BR_SLEEP is set..
- Zorro's exit code can be set with the ExitCode
- The backtest speed was increased due to changes to the print function
and the memory management.
- The seriesO/H/L/C functions can be used as
prices series parameters to indicators or functions.
- Multicore training now supports the
StrategyFolder (was only partially
implemented in the previous version).
- The assign function converts portfolio weights
to asset amounts.
- The report function can now return a list of
all open trades.
- Open trades can be loaded from the broker account with the
- The GET_TRADES and
DO_CANCEL commands were implemented
in the IB plugin.
- Graphics by plotGraph don't affect the chart
- Coinigy now supports
GTC orders and the GET_DATA and
- assetHistory can now load data from
arbitrary sources and supports .t2 order book data (Zorro S
- Setting StopFactor at 1 causes
stops to be managed by the broker only.
- Shifting dynamic series can be controlled with
the NOSHIFT flag.
- New plugins by users: Alpaca, TD
Ameritrade, and Binance Futures.
- New plugins for Zorro S: DTN IQFeed and
- The assetHistory function now loads split
and dividend adjusted data from IEX.
- BR_SLEEP is now unaffected by
- The MT4 bridge now supports the
GET_POSITION command. Re-install the bridge
for using this command.
- The Binance plugin now returns the TradeVal of
all open positions on account requests.
- GET_AVGENTRY was
implemented in the IB plugin.
- The new ZStatus script displays the live
status of multiple accounts (Zorro S required).
Zorro 2.30 (August 2020)
- The IB API can now return
prices in fast mode (price type = 8) in less than 1 ms, dependent on
setup and location.
- Charts can now be generated and updated in real time
with the plotChart function.
- A price history folder can now be set up with the
- Historical D1 data
from IB now contains only regular trading hours.
- The Offline plugin can be used in [Trade]
mode with no broker connection.
- The PayOff script is now
interactive. Strike distance and expiry can be set with sliders.
- The comboProfit function
returns the profit or loss of the current combo at a given expiration price.
- The SLIDERS flag detects slider movement.
- Bar start/end times in live trading are now synchronized to an integer
multiple of the bar period.
- The tdm function counted also partial trading
days, such as UTC Sunday 22:00. For avoiding confusion, now only 'real'
workdays are counted.
- The chart caption can be changed with the print
- The IB plugin was modified for supporting European
options on the ICEEU exchange.
- The TR_AON flag enforces all-or-nothing
- Arbitrary content can be passed via command line
with the -u option.
- contractUpdate now automatically sets the
Multiplier when it was at 0.
- The error function can be used to sound alerts,
send emails, or stop Zorro on warnings or errors.
- Series can be replaced with external buffers with the
- Trades from a template can be entered with
- The Simulate script backtests a trade list.
- For suppressing particular error messages, call
- Spearman correlation with arbritrary
- New Ehlers indicators: CTI, CCYI, CCYIR,
- SMAP calculates the mean of positive values.
- NOWATCH switches off all
- plotContract and
plotCombo plots payoff diagrams of the given option or combo.
- The break_assets, break_algos statements abort asset or algo enumeration loops.
- The average profit per trade, instead of per year, is now displayed
after a backtest.
- MarginCost in the asset list can now be
negative for a percentage. Options multipliers can be given in LotAmount.
- assetSelect() selects the current asset in the
Zorro 2.25 (March 2020)
- Optimized parameters can be generated by script by setting the
optimize range to zero.
- OptimalF factors of profitable components are
now rounded up to at least 0.001.
- A script for converting CSV to .t8 options history was added to the
- The OVERRIDE flag now also works for
broker price sources.
- Two new indicators were added: LSMA and
- Memory consumption by PRELOAD was reduced.
- The last WFO cycle is now extended to
ensure that it includes the end date.
- HistoryScript = "History" in
zorro.ini opens the History script when clicking on a t1, t2, t6, or t8 file (Zorro S).
- The peak, valley, and
cross functions now return the bar offset of the
- The slope and line
functions can be used to connect points on the price curve.
- More traditional indicators: Pivot,
Support, Resistance, Divergence.
- More traditional candle patterns: CDLEngulfing0,
- The BUSY flag indicates whether the broker API can
- PlotLabels determines the x axis label
distance on histograms.
- Text can now be plotted to the chart with plotText.
- Price curves can now also be randomized with
the BOOTSTRAP and RANDOMWALK methods.
- The SHAPE flag allows manipulating price
curves in arbitrary ways for test purposes.
- Use the call scheduler for running functions at
- The debugger now displays a list of open trades.
- Options expiration time of day can now be set with
- New time series functions: SemiMoment,
- The Sortino ratio was added to the
- The knapsack function can be used to manage a
stock portfolio with small capital.
- The ScholzBrake and
LossGlobal variables can step around the new German trader tax.
- The Scholz tax is now included in the
- The C functions strcpy_s, sprintf_s,
strcat_s, memcpy_s have been added to
- New functions for options: contractMargin,
- OBV has been added to the indicators.
- The invalid function helps debugging
- GET_CALLBACK sets a plugin supplied
- Historical data from CryptoCompare is now
automatically appended to existing data, if any.
Zorro 2.20 (November 2019)
- The once function registers the first time when a condition became true.
- The erf function returns the interval probability.
- SampleOffset can be used for per-cycle
- A Detrend example script was added to the
- The price range of randomized curves (SHUFFLE
flag) can now be limited.
- A new workshop 4a about indicator
development has been added.
- Wrong PIP, PIPCost, or
LotAmount parameters from the broker API can be fixed by
- Zorro.ini entries are now available by the
report function. report(1) can now be called inside
- The zalloc function is useful for
allocating temporary arrays.
- BR_SLEEP or BR_LOGOFF
can now be set for the Z systems.
- The question "Close open trades?" at session end can be skipped with the
- Since Oanda now requires a unique size for stop loss orders,
stops are now
handled on the Zorro side.
- Variables and functions that are long outdated or deprecated are now collected in
can be included when needed.
- Outdated keywords moved to legacy.h:
Slider1-3, CVolatility, loadHistory,
- The AccountName string contains the selected
name from the [Account] scrollbox.
- The OptionsCalculator script calculates the
value and delta of call and put options.
- The advise training speed has been improved
for large training sets.
- The flag system was changed to support more than
64 flags. All flags can now be set and read with the set
and is functions.
- The status flags PARCYCLE, FACCYCLE,
RULCYCLE are renamed to avoid confusion
with mode flags of the same name.
- Internal structs have been changed in version 2.19.5. Compiled scripts must be re-compiled for
the current version.
- The command line and other system strings are now available through the
- The SAV_STATS flag resumes
trade statistics from the previous session.
- An example for integrating Zorro in other
software was included in the Source folder.
Zorro 2.15 (July 2019)
- Init is an abbreviation for is(INITRUN).
- The -quiet option suppresses the 3 seconds
pause at the end of a batch run.
- An asset can be optionally preselected in the scrollbox with the assetList function.
- In the TradeOptions script now several combos can
- The getvar/putvar
functions can now store variables in the Windows registry.
- The primary exchange for IB
asset symbols can be appended to the exchange code.
- The strx function can now
replace text in strings of unlimited size.
- Special order types, like "market on close" etc,
are now supported by the IB plugin.
- NaN lines can now be filtered
out by dataParse.
- M1 bitcoin history has been added to the
- A list of market holidays can be passed to the
- The PlotBorder
variable reserves space for the chart axis labels.
- The FXCM plugin was
updated to the most recent API version. You'll need to unpack additional DLLs. Win XP is not supported anymore by
- The Weekend variable
has been replaced by flags that are more
flexible to use.
- New FXCM accounts are now
rewarded with a Zorro S subscription.
- A DLL for integrating Zorro in other platforms
is available on request.
- Zorro instances can
now start, stop, and communicate with each other.
now loads option and futures prices faster from IB.
- The MT4/MT5 bridge
was changed in 2.14.6. Re-install the bridge and compile the Zorro EA.
- CSV files by print(TO_CSV)
are now generated in the Data folder.
- [New Script] will now generate a basic strategy
Zorro 2.12 (released May 2019)
- Genetic and brute force training modes are now
available (Zorro S).
- 10 new scripts for various purposes have been added to the
- The RET indicator is for quickly calculating
momentum without a series.
- The SpecialBars script illustrates the use of
special bars for single-asset and multi-asset strategies.
- The sliders can now display fractional
- The Action scrollbox can now be selected
by script and keeps the selection after the
end of the strategy.
- A new Z13 options trading system was
added to the Z systems (Zorro S).
- The number of concurrent broker connections was increased from 4 to
- The PL_BENCHMARK flag plots the equity
curve as a line.
- Virtual Hedging became a S feature and the interactive chart viewer
became a free
The performance report now contains a
breakdown of annual and monthly returns.
The InvestCalculator script allows investing by the
square root rule.
The SETFACTORS flag allows factor calculation by
CSV files generated with the SIGNALS flag are
now stored separately per asset.
The Ulcer and R2
statistics parameters have been renamed to ReturnUlcer
The conv function converts a float array to a var
The R2 function returns the coefficient of
determination of a series.
- dataMerge adds new
data at the front of an existing dataset.
- Interest on margin loan can
be set up with the Interest variable.
IEX exchange is now supported by assetHistory
and with the IEX plugin.
- Price request can be
switched off with the SET_PRICETYPE
- The default objective function now rejects
results with less than 5 trades.
factors are not displayed in the performance report when profit is
Zorro 2.08 (released April 2019)
- The new Python Bridge allows to run Python
scripts and commands from Zorro.
- A new Regime script was added to test
indicator responses on market regime changes.
- The frameSync function now synchronizes also
30-min and 4-hour timeframes.
- Get info about trading events with the
- The plotHistory helper function allows
easier producing histograms.
- The comboAdd function adds a contract to the
- comboPremium calculates the premium of a
- Stop orders can be added to IB trades with the
- NumAssetsUsed counts the assets used in
- Live is an abbreviation for
- The contractSellUnderlying function gets
rid of the underlying of exercised contracts.
- BarMode > 4 now suspends
broker API calls when logged out.
- A new memory management reduces the memory footprint of portfolio
systems by about 50%.
- The LEANER flag reduces the memory footprint
by further 50% when TICKS is not set.
- Option premiums displayed in the log now include the ask-bid spread.
- The Itor variable
counts asset and trade loops.
- Symbol strings can now contain '*'
for the asset name.
- The IB API now supports option combinations
and GTC orders.
- AlgoVar2 can now be saved with the
- Warning 054 will now be issued when asset
parameters from the broker API are suspicious.
- The require function can be used to start
a script only with a certain software version.
Zorro 2.03 (released February 2019)
- The brokerAsset and
brokerAccount functions directly call the
corresponding functions of the broker API.
- The Chart script opens a .t1, .t6, or .t8
file and displays its content in a chart.
- The CryptoCompare download function
has been adapted to the new 2000 prices limit.
- Z9 now downloads UK ETFs from Stooq (Yahoo
sometimes delivered wrong prices for UK assets).
- assetHistory now uses the current asset
history symbol when no name is given.
- The Centage flags automatically convert
live or historical prices given in cents, as
for some agricultural futures and options.
- A new [Action] scrollbox has been added. It
can be set up in Zorro.ini or in the
script for running Zorro tasks, external programs,
or script functions with a mouse click.
- The SET_PATCH command can now also
override the broker API's leverage and margin cost parameters.
- The timeOffset function now also supports
bars in the future.
- The contractUpdate function can now load chains
from any historical data, using the Now
- The .t8 format is now also accepted for historical
price data (History = ".t8"). If the file contains
different underlying prices for the same date, as for futures, their
average is used.
- For options on futures (FOPs) the trading class can now be encoded
in the IB symbol string.
- The exchange for the current options chain can now be retrieved or
given with the Exchange variable.
- The ER and KAMA2 indicators have
been added to the indicators list.
- The maximum size of a contract chain has been increased to 20,000
- MaxLong and MaxShort
can be set to a negative number for preventing the updating of open
- The Zorro.exe can now be assigned to files with .t1,
.t6, .t8 extension and automatically
displays them in a chart.
- A name can be passed via command line to the
- PlotHeight2 can be used for determining
the proportions of additional charts in the interactive chart viewer.
- The account is now stored per trade so that trades from multiple
brokers or accounts can be resumed.
- The file_appendFront function now supports
- Options can now be combined with the combo
- Algo identifiers ending with ":L"
or ":S" now automatically suppress trades in opposite
- The VWAV function calculates volume weighted
Zorro 1.96 (released November 2018)
- Stop and Trail distances can
now also be used for option contracts.
- The interactive Chart Viewer allows zooming into
chart details and replaying the backtest in single step and slow motion (Zorro
- Level 2 data is now supported by the IB plugin with the
GET_BOOK command. Market depth data must be
subscribed and the exchange must be coded in the asset symbol.
- The contract.c include file is now C++
compatible, which allows writing options trading systems with the
- A step by step instruction for writing strategies with
Visual Studio was added to the manual (Zorro S).
- The contractRecord function can store the current
option or futures chain in a historical data file in .t8 format.
- The number of AssetVars has been increased to
16. The first 8 can be read from the asset list.
- The background color of a panel button can now be
changed in the click function.
- Automatic daylight saving can now be switched off by adding UTC
to the time zone, f.i. UTC+1 = Central European Winter Time
and UTC+2 = Central European Summer Time.
- A new workshop for options trading was
added to the tutorial.
- A negative lot parameter to a trade function reverses
the trade direction. This allows shorter code in some situations.
Zorro 1.88 (released August 2018)
- The sortRank function can encode candle patterns
for machine learning features.
- The file_next function can enumerate file names
in a directory.
- Multiple accounts are now supported by the IB plugin.
The account can be set up in the account list.
- Order flow can be analyzed with the order book functions.
- Broker API requests can be limited with the MaxRequests
variable. The limit is automatically set by broker plugins that support the
- The Mode function returns the most frequent
value of a data series.
- The Windows Handle can be used for triggering events
between Zorros or asynchronously receiving price quotes from
- Option Delta can now be calculated with the contractDelta
- With the panelFix function header rows or colums
can be determined on a scrolling panel.
- The default BarOffset for daily candles and
D1 history is now set to 16:30 for preventing unwanted midnight bars.
- The modf function splits a variable in a fractional
and integer part.
- FROM_YAHOO is back! At least for the moment,
Yahoo™ data can be downloaded again, using a 'backdoor'.
- The dataParseJSON function parses OHLC prices from
a JSON file to a .t6 dataset.
- The OrderDuration variable limits the duration
of a GTC order.
- Williams' Market Sentiment Index has been added to the
- Commission is now stored per trade, which allows
to set up script-calculated commission amounts before entry or in a
- Option trades displayed in the chart now begin
with the strike price.
- The COT functions can be used to evaluate the
Commitment Of Traders report.
- The priceRecord function can be used to update price
history files while live trading.
- Use file_appendfront for appending data to the start
of a file.
- Different brokers and sources can now be used for trading, live prices,
and historical prices through the Symbol syntax.
- The Z10 system now automatically rebalances the
cryptocurrency positions in trade mode.
- The Binance and Bitfinex
cryptocurrency exchanges are now directly supported.
Zorro 1.83 (released May 2018)
- Stock splits are now detected and can be evaluated with the
- The sortData / sortIdx functions can now also
sort in descending order.
- The FXCM plugin now also downloads bid prices in
- The marketVal function now supports bid-ask spread
from bid prices in .t1 files.
- Closed trades can be enumerated with for(closed_trades).
- The contractCPD function can be used for predicting
the underlying price from option prices.
- For finding a particular value in a time series, use the
- The suspended function returns the current trading
- Changed margin costs of open positions are now considered in the backtest.
- On no-leverage accounts, the ROI (return on investment) is displayed at
- The contractNext function allows to enumerate
contracts by their strike value.
- ConnorsRSI and SMA-based RSI were added
to the indicators.
- The NFA flag does not prevent partially closing trades
- The filter and renorm
functions can be used for array filtering and normalization.
- The contractStrike function calculates a strike
price from Delta.
- The TradeIsMissed status can be used for generating
adaptive orders. The TradeTest script now supports
adaptive entries and exits.
- BarMode flag 16 suppresses bars outside market
- Assets and algos can be enumerated with for(used_assets)
- The results function can sum
up the results of the last N trades by several criteria.
- Selecting an account from the
account list now also changes the assets in the Asset scrollbox.
- The broker interface
now supports UUID strings to identify trades.
- The Bittrex plugin is included
in the beta version (Zorro S).
- Weekend = +16 now uses the bar time
zone for allowing bar generation without setting AssetMarket.
- wdatef now supports Unix time
stamps with the %t format code.
- For quicker finding a function, a
list by category was added to the manual.
- Detrend now supports
RECIPROCAL mode for swapping currencies of a forex pair.
- marketVal and
marketVol can now also be called in a TMF or
- The dataFromQuandl function now
automatically adjusts timestamps by 16 hours.
- Datasets can be truncated with dataClip.
- A new Z10 system with more than 1000%
annual return was added to the Z systems (Zorro S).
- The Z3 system is now included in the
free Zorro version.
- Crypto history in day, hour, or minute resolution can
be downloaded from CryptoCompare (Zorro S).
- Selecting an asset with the scrollbox now triggers the
click function. The selected asset can be evaluated
with the AssetBox string.
- The sftoa function can display
prices with an adaptive number of digits.
- The Coinigy plugin is included
in the beta version (Zorro S). Coinigy allows algorithmic trading with many
digital currency exchanges.
- The new History script displays the
content of .t1, .t6, or .t8
files (Zorro S).
- The [Edit] button now also
opens the asset list after a test if the script used special assets.
- Portfolio weights can be generated with the
Zorro 1.74 (released January 2018)
- dataParse is now 2x faster, and supports larger text
fields in the target dataset (1.70.2) and a start and end record (1.70.3).
- The ContractRow variable allows easy expansion
of option contracts with further fields in an extra dataset.
- Colors can be made brighter or darker with colorScale.
- A negative Capital amount allows backtests without margin
- The stridx function can be used for indexing arrays
or datasets with asset or algo names.
- Up to 4 different brokers or price sources can now be simultaneously connected
by asset/account list entries (1.70.6, Zorro S required).
- A page about Broker Arbitrage was added to the
- The _POS macro helps finding the location of error
messages in the script.
- The GET_MAXTICKS broker command allows downloading
historical data in bigger chunks than 300 ticks (1.71.2).
- Indicators can now be loaded from CSV time series with the
- The dnorm function returns the probability of a variable
in a Gaussian distribution.
- The strtr function returns a string identifying a
- The currency symbol and number of decimals for account values can now be
set up with the account list (1.71.9).
- The fill status of a trade can now be returned with the
BrokerTrade function. The MTR4 bridge has been
- The R Bridge can now also be used with a
strategy DLL (1.72.4).
- The PL_ALLTRADES flag plots trades of all assets
in the same chart.
- Downloading Crypto Currencies from Coinbase
and Bitfinex is now supported through the Quandl Bridge (Zorro S required).
- Limiting trades to local market hours can now be set up in the
- Panel cells can be merged with panelMerge.
- The stop distance of pool trades can be set with StopPool.
- The IB Bridge now downloads prices in 1500-tick packets,
which increased the download speed by up to 30%.
- The IB Bridge now supports the
SET_PRICETYPE command with parameters 1 (quotes)
and 2 (trades).
- The Download script was pimped up. It is now easier
to use and offers more features.
- Perceptrons with an analogue output can now be
- The start date of the Z8 and Z9 systems is now
automatically adapted to the availability of historical data.
- Unix time stamps in milliseconds are now supported for
- Since Support got permanently complaints by former MTR4 users about the
'wrong lot size', position sizes can now be given as Amount,
similar to MTR4 lots.
- The TrainMode variable got a new flag to generate
OptimalF factors separately per WFO cycle.
- Broker connections can now be set up per asset in the
asset list, allowing simultaneous connection to several
brokers (Zorro S).
Zorro 1.66 (released September 2017)
- Statistics data can now be evaluated at the
end of the strategy.
- The dataSaveCSV function can be used for saving datasets
in arbitrary CSV formats.
- The PercentRank function was added.
- The "reverse" helper functions have been replaced by the
MaxLong / MaxShort variables.
- Option history files in .t8 format are now automatically
loaded by contractUpdate.
- Commission is now automatically reduced by 50% on expired options.
- A cheat sheet with often used codes was added to
- TO_ALERT and TO_CSVHDR modes have been
added to the print command.
- The Zorro panel can now be resized, allowing more space for the message
- The -stay command line option leaves the Zorro
window open after running a script.
- The Cold
Blood Index has been implemented through the verify
function. It is now displayed every day in live trading by the Z systems.
- Log files from strategy variants can be more conveniently compared by numbering
them with LogNumber.
- Plot curves are now automatically exported to spreadsheets
in the CSV format.
- The Margin and Risk sliders of the
Z strategies have been replaced by a Capital
slider similar to Z8.
- The Z8 system got several improvements (heatmap
display, sell priority, weight adaption).
- A new system Z9 was added to the Z systems, based
on Antonacci's "Dual Momentum".
- The advise function now accepts signals in an
array with arbitrary length.
- The generated perceptron, decision tree, and price pattern rules use now
double precision variables.
- Zorro now distinguishes rejected Pool Trades from
externally closed Pool Trades.
- The Notepad++ editor was integrated in Zorro as a
replacement of the SED editor.
Zorro 1.60 (released July 2017)
- Price data can now also be downloaded from
Google Finance, AlphaVantage, and
- The IG plugin by Daniel Lindberg has been added to
the Plugins folder.
- The Payoff script can be used for calculating profit
diagrams of option combinations.
- The assetList function now also sets the Asset scrollbox
to the selected asset list.
- The MTR5 platform is now supported with the
MTR5 bridge 1.15
- The outlier detection can be adjusted with the Outlier
- The Stoch function now also supports variable time
- StartDate = NOW can be used for
strategies that do not run permanently, but are started periodically, f.i. for
modifying a portfolio.
- AssetMarket can be used for skipping all bars
outside market hours in local time.
- Z8 was changed to trade not anymore at a fixed day of the month. The next
trading day is now displayed in trade mode.
Zorro 1.58 (released May 2017)
- If an asset is not available from the broker, it can be downloaded from
Yahoo or Quandl by using special Symbol codes.
- The callback function can be called from the
broker plugin, allowing the script to react immediately
on certain API events.
- In HFT mode, high frequency trading systems can be
simulated with pre-set lag.
- Various plot flags can be set with the PlotMode
- A StopFactor can now be determined for the Z systems
and allows disabling broker stops.
- The Oanda plugin now also supports Oanda API V2.0.
- Text can now be assigned to the [Result] button
- The IB plugin now supports trade volume also in live
- Seconds in .csv files and wdatef
fields can now have decimals and are parsed with 1 microsecond resolution.
- A new lowpass filter function was added that does
not use a series.
- The Quandl WIKI database is now supported by
- A user-developed Dukascopy plugin has been included.
Zorro 1.54 (released February 2017)
- Functions for loading arbitrary data, such as option
chains, futures, order book content etc. from CSV files have been implemented.
- The wdatef function parses time/data parameters
from formatted strings.
- The dataFromQuandl function can access Quandl™
datasets for backtests as well as for live trading (Zorro
- Up to 8 additional asset specific values or strings can be stored in the
- The contract functions are for trading and analyzing
options and futures.
- Real money accounts can now be connected in read-only mode with an
- The EXTRADATA flag of version 1.50 was replaced by the
LEAN flag that has the opposite meaning. Historical data
is now stored in noncompressed format by default.
- Option and future chains can be restricted to certain trading classes with
the SET_CLASS command.
- The IB bridge now supports the SET_LIMIT
command for getting a better fill price.
- The IB bridge now supports stock CFDs (type STKCFD).
- Prices are now stored with 5 digits precision in the trade spreadsheet.
- Option trades are now based on the real options ask price instead of the
- The MinutesPerDay variable prevents "Not
Enough Bars" errors of assets that are only traded a few hours per day.
- The between function now also works for cyclic
- PlotPeriod sets the update rate of the chart
on the trade status page.
- The OrderLimit variable allows sending limit orders
for filling with best price within a time period.
- The season indicator can be used to predict price
movements based on seasonal strength.
- qnorm is the inverse of the cdf
- Assets can now be excluded from Z3 and Z7 with the
Exclude line in z.ini.
- The equity or balance curve of a test run is now also exported in CSV format
for further evaluation.
- MTR4 bridge 1.13 now supports a lock command
for preventing that trade parameters sent by different Zorro instances interfere
with each other.
Zorro 1.50 (released September 2016)
- Orders for binary options and other special order types can now be sent
via MTR4 bridge with the SET_ORDERTEXT command
- Currency strength functions have been added for detecting
currency trends that affect several markets (V 1.47.2).
- Live trading results can be verified by retesting
(V 1.47.2; Zorro S required).
- Live trading systems can retrain automatically in predefined intervals with
the ReTrainDays variable (V 1.47.2;
Zorro S required).
- The sliders can now be moved with slider(num,pos)
commands (V 1.47.2).
- The default data format was changed from .bar to
.t6 for including volume and other
data streams in the price history (V 1.47.2). .bar data can
still be used.
- With the marketVol function, trade or tick volume
of an asset can be used in a trading algorithm (V 1.47.3; Zorro S only).
- The Fill mode determines how orders are filled in
the simulation (V 1.47.4).
- Numbers can be passed to the Command variable via
command line (V 1.47.4; Zorro S required).
- The number of optimize steps per parameter was increased to 1000 (V 1.47.7).
- Price ticks are now internally stored in a different format that used less
memory for large high-resolution backtests. (V 1.47.7).
- Disquieting broker messages - such as "An internal server error occurred,
our engineers have been notified" - are now filtered out by the Oanda plugin
- Three Volatility indicators are now supported - Chaikin,
Min/Max, and StdDev based volatilities (V1.50.2).
Zorro 1.46 (released July 2016)
- The assetAdd function allows adding assets via script
without editing the asset list.
- The assetList function loads an asset list immediately.
- Price history files can be shared among several Zorro installations when
a HistoryFolder is set up in Zorro.ini.
- With the "\r" character in a
print/printf statement that jumps back to
begin on the current line, a running counter or similar effects can be realized
in the message window.
- The mouse function can be used for automated clicking "Buy"
and "Sell" buttons on a broker's web interface.
- Individual asset lists for the Z systems can
now be entered in the Z.ini setup file.
- A new free trading system Z8 was added to the
- The Oanda plugin now supports sub-accounts.
- The LINE flag in a plot command
plots thick lines in the chart.
- [Change Folder] in the Strategy scrollbox selects
strategies from a different folder.
Zorro 1.44 (released May 2016)
- The Oanda plugin allows direct trading with Oanda™
(for Zorro S or subscription).
- Headers for authorization or other purposes can now be included in the
- The TradeTest script opens a panel with buttons
for manually trading, useful for testing broker plugins.
- Files can now be selected in a dialog box with the file_select
- Clicking on [Result] during test or trading triggers
the click function. This can be used for performing
a calculation or plotting an interim result.
- The IB bridge was modified for downloading larger price
- The GET_POSITION command is now supported
by the IB bridge.
- The BALANCED flag produces a balanced samples
distribution for all machine learning algorithms.
- A set of normalization functions was added for better
adapting indicators to machine learning algorithms.
- The SIGNALS method exports samples for experimenting
with them in R sessions.
- A default neural function was included in the
r.h header. The documentation now got a R example for a 'deep
- The Covariance between two series was added to the
- The TRADESIZE flag can be used for training strategies
that rely on different trade sizes, f.i. Martingale systems.
- The 28 Currencies history
was updated until the end of 2015.
- Day gives the current day number of the simulation.
- Optimal capital allocation among portfolio components can be calculated
with the Markowitz efficient frontier.
- Symbols on a histogram or statistics chart can now have individual colors.
- The plotHeatmap function can plot correlation
- The color function can be used for plotting heatmaps
or multiple color curves.
- Date and time can be printed more easily with the strdate
- A set of matrix functions was added.
- By default Zorro is now installed in the User folder instead
of the Program Files folder.
Zorro 1.42 (released February 2016)
- The STEPWISE flag can be used for
debugging trade behavior by single stepping through a test session.
- Variables can be debugged with the watch function.
- When a script crashes, the name of the faulty function is now displayed.
- A negative PlotBars number zooms to the end of
- The MTR4 Bridge can now draw horizontal lines
and text in the MTR4 chart window.
- The MTR4 Bridge latency time was reduced from
~100 ms to ~30 ms by optimizing the data transfer.
- Control panels can now be defined for entering and
displaying strategy parameters.
- The Leverage parameter was changed to reflect account
leverage instead of buying power.
- The location of the .trd files moved from the Log
to the Data folder.
- The last potentially orphaned trade is now displayed in the status page.
- The Shannon Entropy was added to the indicators.
- Price data of stocks and indices can now be downloaded from Yahoo with the
- The Download script is now controlled with a panel;
editing the script is not necessary anymore.
- Assets can now be tested even with no entry in the asset list. An error
message will then be issued and default asset parameters will be used.
- Trade loops can now be executed from inside
- The wdate function returns the date and time of
a bar in the Windows DATE format.
- Trades can be simulated in an unrealistic naive mode
for special purposes.
- Individual text editors (such as Notepad++) and chart viewers can be used
by editing the Zorro.ini file.
Zorro 1.40.2 (released November 2015)
- Zorro can now trade with Interactive Brokers accounts
through the IB plugin.
- Asset lists and account lists are now in .csv format for
easier editing. Leverage and Symbol have been
added to the asset parameters.
- Correlograms can now be plotted with the profile
- Trade slippage, magic number, and other parameters can now be set up in
the MTR4 bridge via
- The type of an asset can be determined with the assetType
- The frameSync function can be used to snychronize
the time frame to full hours or days.
- A fixed WFO test/training time can be set up with
- Curves stores balance or equity curves during
the training process for further evaluation.
- The putvar/getvar functions share variables globally
- The lock function can synchronize the behavior of
multiple Zorros (Zorro S only).
- The sort functions can now be used without data
- The randomize function can shuffle a price or
equity curve with or without replacement.
- Percentile calculates upper or lower percentiles of
a data series.
- ProfitFactor calculates the profit factor of a balance
or equity curve.
- The market function can be used to limit trading
to certain hours of the day.
- The plotData function returns plot data arrays that
can be used for further evaluation.
- Plotting data is now pre-sampled, which makes plotting huge data sets -
f.i. a backtest of several years based on minute or second bars - up to 100
times faster than before.
- The BrokerAccount function is now optional
(account data is normally unavailable in a FIX API implementation).
- The Montecarlo module has been integrated in
Zorro, so an external plugin is not required anymore.
- Periodic I/O tasks can be realized with the tock
- The sample period of the Spectrum function can
now be set up independently.
- The Z.ini file can now be modified while trading,
and is updated at the begin of the next bar.
- The Z7 system got a modified and supposedly more
- loop(Assets) loops over all assets from the asset
Zorro 1.34 (released August 2015)
- WFO training time can be minimized by using several
CPU cores (Zorro S only).
- The Zorro window can be started minimized with the
-h command line option.
- The AssetZone variable allows individual time
zones for assets in a portfolio system.
- The pattern analyzer behavior can be set up with the
PatternCount and PatternRate
- A negative series length can be used for generating
static, non-shifting series.
- The ZigZag indicator was added to the indicators list.
- Machine learning models and script parameters can now be trained at the
same time (see Training). In the previous version
this was only possible for the integrated machine learning methods, but not
for the general NEURAL method.
- The bar function allows user-defined special bars
such a Range Bars or Renko Bars.
- Training parameters now really produces a HTML file with parameter histograms
(in the previous version this was not yet fully included).
- The R lectures by Harry Georgakopoulos have
been included in the Zorro documentation.
- Zorro will now detect margin calls when Capital is
- The seed function can initiate a deterministic
random number sequence.
- The HH and LL functions now also
accept a bar offset.
- The Ichimoku indicator was added to the collection.
- The TO_CSV print target prints into a CSV file.
- The strmid function returns a substring from a string.
- The asset list AssetsCur.dta contains all 28 major currency
- Price history of all 28 major currency pairs is available on the download
- The Z2 system has been improved and got better
exit algorithms and a new counter trend algo (A2).
- The new Z7 system, based on the machine learning
algorithm from Workshop 7, was included.
Zorro 1.32 (released June 2015)
- The R bridge runs R
functions from lite-C scripts and allows coding a trade strategy completely
in R, using the newest and sexiest AI algorithms.
- Verbose = 30 now stops the blackbox recording
at the first error.
- The strw function converts strings to wide character
- The strf function returns a formatted string.
- The strx function replaces sub-strings in a string.
- The TO_FILE and TO_ANY
print target prints messages to the log file and window in all modes.
- The TICKS mode was changed. Ticks are now executed
in the order of their time stamp, not sorted by asset or trade as before. This
makes testing slower, but removes the special restrictions for tick functions,
TMFs, and virtual hedging. The old testing method can still be used by setting
the FAST flag.
- The rev function reverses a series so that it now
starts with the oldest data.
- The SHUFFLE flag randomizes a price curve and
thus helps determining if profit is caused by a real edge or by artifacts or
- The plotWFOCycle and plotWFOProfit
functions can be used for analyzing the profit curve over several WFO cycles.
- The BarZone variable can be used to shift daily
bars to a certain local time zone.
- Chaikin Volatility was added to the standard indicators.
- The BINARY flag enables the simulation of binary
- Training now plots all parameter charts in a
HTML page, also for portfolios and WFO.
Zorro 1.30 (released April 2015)
- The OptimalFRatio variable modifies OptimalF
factors for preventing large component margin differences in portfolio systems.
- For scalping strategies, bar periods down to
100 ms are now possible with Zorro S. The BarPeriod variable
is now of type var instead of int (check possible
compatibility issues, f.i. in print/printf statements).
- Asset specific parameters can be stored in the AssetVar
- All Z systems can now be retrained with Zorro
S by clicking the [Train] button (even while trading).
Price history of all assets from 2008 and above must be available in the
History folder. The recent prices are updated and the parameters
of the last WFO cycle are trained. Retraining the Z systems is normally not
necessary, but was requested by many users.
- Several small improvements have been implemented in the
Z systems, among them different OptimalF
factors for the backtest and for live trading, and a different profit lock method.
- The Z3 system now also trades US indexes.
- A chart with the current equity curve and other information is now included
in the trade status page.
- If the trade volume is controlled by setting both Margin
and Lots, the Lots variable now determines
the minimum number of lots per trade. Trades can be automatically skipped when
Margin is below the minimum.
- The backtest can now use T1 (tick based) historical
- The assetHistory function can now be used
to produce T1 price history files.
- The seconds function is now of type var
instead of int (check possible compatibility issues, f.i. in
print/printf statements). Its fractional part contains fractions of a second
in milliseconds precision.
- The user-supplied tick
function can be used to evaluate incoming price quotes.
- The AutoCompile flag determines whether scripts are
always compiled, or only when they were modified.
- Plot names beginning with '#' won't appear in the
- The test performance can now be further evaluated with the user-supplied
- The UO (Universal Oscillator) by John
Ehlers was added to the indicator library.
- The Risk column of the status page
now displays the current risk of a trade instead of the initial risk.
Zorro 1.28 (released February 2015)
- The WebFolder variable can now be
set up globally for displaying live trade status on a web site.
- The strtext function can be used to read strings
from an .ini file.
- The DPO oscillator was added to the TA functions.
- The AGC and EMA functions
now also accept an alpha parameter instead of a time period.
- Some Zorro properties - for instance, the automatic deleting of old log
files - can now be set up in the Zorro.ini file.
- The commission per asset can now be set up in the
AssetsFix.csv file and by script in the
Commission variable. The simulation now simulates a
spread/commission account, instead of a pure spread account.
- In the SNB floor removal aftermath, many brokers reduced their maximum leverage
from 400:1 or 200:1 to 100:1. The simulated default account (AssetsFix.csv)
was also changed to 100:1 leverage, which affects the profit of most systems.
- The Z4 and Z5 systems are expired and
have been removed from the strategy pool.
- The Z3 system now also got an equity curve trading
- The currently profitable and suspended components of the Z12
system are now displayed in a asset/algo matrix with
green and red rectangles.
Zorro 1.26 (released October 2014)
- The number of open lots per asset can be evaluated with the
LotsPool and LotsPhantom
- The Market Meanness Index (MMI) was added to the indicator
- Haiken Ashi prices (HA) were added to the indicator
- The Z systems have been improved and retrained. New algorithms have been
added to the Z4 and Z5 systems for working with very low price volatility.
Zorro 1.24 (released June 2014)
- The AssetFrame variable can be used to skip
quoteless bars of assets in a portfolio system.
- The TradeCosts script lists the relative trade
costs of all main assets.
- The Script scrollbox now 'remembers' the last selected
- Hedge mode 5 now minimizes the number of open trades
by closing trades partially if required.
- exitLong/Short can now close trades partially.
- The MTR4 bridge and the FXCM plugin have
been adapted to partially closing trades.
- TrailSpeed raises the stop faster before breakeven,
this way preventing that a winning trade turns back into a loser.
- The Hurst exponent can determine trending state of
a price curve.
- The Alligator indicator was added to the library.
- The predict function can predict crossovers several
bars before they happen.
- The Momentum variable indicates the 'strength'
of crossovers, peaks, or valleys.
- The saveStatus/loadStatus
functions can preserve variables, open trades, and slider positions when the
system is stopped or restarted.
- The AlgoVar variables are now automatically saved,
thus keeping their content when a trading system is stopped or restarted.
- Invalid Margin values are now indicated with an error
- The NFA flag is now ignored in training mode.
- While trading, Zorro now displays a detailed lists of open trades and performance
statistics in a HTML file that is updated every minute.
Zorro 1.22 (released April 2014)
- The MTR4 bridge was updated to version 1.3 that
supports MTR4 version 600 and above.
- The Multisession plugin allows to trade with multiple
brokers, instances, and accounts even with the free Zorro version.
- Placing the stop level at the wrong side of the price in a TMF is now automatically
- The ATR function now adapts to the TimeFrame.
- A new Virtual Hedging mode allows to combine trades
opened on the same bar to a single net trade.
- The Keltner Channel was added to the indicator library.
- The PlotDate variable can be used to zoom the
chart to a certain date.
- The print function can print to various targets,
f.i. to a message box or to the performance report.
- Zorro now only logs in to the broker when in trade mode. In test or train
mode, missing assets or price data will produce an error message. The
Download script now needs trade mode for updating
prices or asset data.
- The exec function can be used to open an external
program, document, URL, or batch file.
- A Monte Carlo plugin is now available for a
Monte Carlo analysis of strategy scripts and external trade lists.
- The annual return is now calculated from the maximum margin instead of the
average margin. This produces slightly more pessimistic returns.
- The R2 coefficient that measures equity curve linearity
is now included in the performance report.
- A small example script for converting .csv price history
files to Zorro's .bar format was added (needs the file_write
- The History string can be used for selecting between
different sets of historical data files.
- The file_write function can be used to store the
content of a string, series, or array in a file.
- The NumInRange function can be used to generate
price distribution statistics while trading.
- The ShannonGain indicator calculates the expected
gain of the next bar period, based on Shannon probability.
- A description of using NeuroShell™ and other DLL-based indicators
for Zorro was added to the conversion chapter.
- Trade management functions (TMF) can now be triggered
by entry or exit limits, thus allowing for additional entry/exit conditions
or trade chains.
- TickSmooth can remove outliers from incoming
- The TickTime variable can be used to save CPU
resources by defining a minimum time between script executions.
- The plotProfit functions plot the daily, weekly,
monthly, or quarterly profit or loss in the price chart.
- The Z5 system got a new algorithm for the "Stop"
slider that re-enters trades closed due to the risk limit. This greatly improves
the profit in situations when the risk limit is exceeded.
Zorro 1.20 (released November 2013)
- The PRELOAD flag allows loading lookback price data
from the price history on trade start.
- The DominantPhase function can detect turning points
of the dominant cycle in a price curve even before they happen.
- The account selection system was implemented for
multiple accounts and/or multiple MTR4 clients (Zorro S only).
- A new FXCM plugin is available where the wrong trade profit issue is fixed,
so the SET_PATCH command is not required anymore.
- Bar charts by plotBar are now automatically aligned
so that the chart always starts with the first bar.
- The MTR4 bridge now supports multiple MTR4 instances
on the same PC (Zorro S only). To connect to a particular MTR4 account, either
the account number can be manually entered in Zorro's [User]
field, or the account selection system can be used.
- The -d command line option allows to pass a
#define statement to the script (Zorro S only). This way many
different tasks can be automatized with the same script.
- The ALLCYCLES flag produces a portfolio analysis
of all sample cycles.
- The plot command now supports plotting different
symbols in the chart.
- A price data gap check can be activated with the GapDays
- New indicators by John Ehlers (HighPass2,
StochEhlers) have been converted to C by DdlV, together
with an example script of a trade system.
- A Filter script has been added for testing and
displaying Zorro's spectral filter functions.
- The sine and square wave generators can now produce hyperbolic chirps for
- Margin at 0 now prevents trades;
previously 1 lot was opened, which was a common source of mistakes.
- A backup of the .trd file is now stored at trade start.
- Several different money management methods are now discussed at the end
of workshop 6.
- A Gap script was added as an example for a simple
gap trading system.
- The Z5 system was improved for adapting to
periods of low volatility.
- The new Z4 system was especially designed
for minimal budgets in the range of $100 .. $400.
Zorro 1.16 (released September 2013)
- The -quiet command line flag suppresses message
- FTP and HTTP functions have
been added for accessing the content of websites or sending emails or files
to or from remote servers.
- A new Virtual Hedging mode was implemented and replaces
the HEDGING flag. It can greatly reduce the market exposure
and the trade duration, and improve profit due to smaller trade costs.
- A drawdown chart was added to the performance
- Chart colors can be individually set up with the color
- The contribution weights of portfolio components are now listed in the
- New trades can now be opened from inside a TMF.
- The Simulate script simulates a trade system by
importing trades from a .CSV file.
- Entry and exit time of a trade are now stored with tick precision in the
.CSV file (previously it was with bar precision only).
- Some users had problems to set up a trading system on a VPS, so a
VPS installation service was added to the download page.
- The Z5 system now uses virtual hedging.
Zorro 1.14 (released August 2013)
- While trading, a click on [Result] prints a list
of open trades with entry, current, and stop prices.
- The login function can be used for temporarily logging
out from the broker.
- The memory function can be used for determining
the current memory footprint of the script, and for finding memory leaks.
- The reverse functions are convenient for limiting
the number of trades. Their use is explained in
- The msg function can now be used for modeless message
boxes, useful for trade alerts without interrupting the script.
- The stop loss distance is now displayed in the daily profit/loss reports
with Verbose >= 2.
- OptimalF factors are now also calculated for
long and short trades together. This gives a more precise result than averaging
the long and short OptimalF factors.
- A seconds function was added for evaluating intrabar
- The OrderDelay variable can be used for improving
profits by entering trades at the optimal moment.
- A step by step description of adding new assets and downloading price data
was added to the manual.
- The Capital variable allows to set up an initial
capital and calculate the CAGR.
- The advise function can now generate trading rules
for multiple assets and algos.
- The BarPeriod variable can now be set from an
optimize call, except for WFO.
- TimeFrame can now generate individual time frames
that are aligned to external events.
- assetHistory can now be used for updating
or adding new assets without downloading historic price data.
- The state of the input sliders are now stored together with the open trades,
and restored when trading is resumed.
- The state of the Account scrollbox is now preserved when Zorro is restarted.
- The BarMode variable can now be set to
2 for preventing that bars end during the weekend.
- The Verbose variable can now be used to set up
message verbosity and diagnostics mode via script. It is also added to the
Z.ini file for the included systems.
- The diag.txt file is now separately stored for every strategy.
Zorro 1.12 (released July 2013)
- Slippage is now recorded while live trading, and displayed in the
performance report in total and per trade.
- An additional algorithm (VO) was added to the Z1 system, increasing the
annual return to about 280%
- After 6 months live test the Z3 and
Z5 trade systems have been released.
- C source generated by machine learning functions is now stored in
.c files instead of .rul.
- The plotMAEGraph function can produce MAE distribution
graphs and similar charts.
- The plotGraph function draws lines and polygons in
- The DOT type can be used for plotting a dotted curve.
- The Trail distance can now be negative for raising
the stop loss on any bar regardless if the trade is in profit or not.
- Due to an internal loop optimization, trades are now entered faster, thus
- The MUTE flag prevents playing sounds (in the case
that Zorro trades from your bedroom).
- NumTotalCycles can be used to repeat a
full simulation cycle many times.
- The pattern analyzer can now generate 'fuzzy patterns'
with the FUZZY|PATTERN method.
- The pattern analyzer can now generate pattern
finding functions in C that can be exported to other platforms.
- The equalF and eq functions have been
added to the fuzzy logic set.
Zorro 1.10 (released May 2013)
- Zorro can now run as a MTR4 expert advisor using the
- The Spectrum function can be used to find hidden
cycles in a price curve.
- A new workshop was added for trading with
machine learning algorithms.
- AI rules and strategy parameters can now be generated at the same time.
- The PATTERN analyzer automatically finds profitable
candle patterns for price action trading.
- The FrameOffset variable allows to generate
trade signals at different times within the same time frame of a multi time
- The -diag command line option can be used for
finding the reason of a crash or similar problem that terminates the script.
Zorro 1.06 (released March 2013)
- The AVG flag now allows to plot
a value as an average curve over all oversampling cycles.
- A Laguerre filter was added to the
- Comparing a function pointer with a var or float
value - this can happen when forgetting the () of a function call - will now
generate a compiler error.
- The info and progress
commands display text and color signals in Zorro's info window and progress
- Zorro can now be started from external programs with
command line options.
- Seasonal analysis functions have been implemented.
They are also be available as an add-on for Zorro 1.05.
- The Z12, Z12fx, and Z12nfa
combined strategies have been removed because they were found less profitable
than trading Z1 and Z2 separately. Reason is an internal mechanism that evaluated
open trade profits for trade decisions, which does not work well across opposite
strategies such as the Z1 trend trading and the Z2 counter trend trading systems.
Zorro 1.05 (released January 2013)
- The Total down time - the time spent below a preceding
equity peak - is now displayed in the performance
- The timer function can be used for precisely determining
- Asymmetric slippage can be simulated by setting the
Slippage variable to a negative value.
- dayPivot calculates the pivot point of the previous
- The stock exchange working hours for the day functions
can be changed through the variables StartMarket and
- The week start and end time can be changed through the variables
StartWeek and EndWeek.
- The DIAG flag prints the execution time for opening
and closing positions into the log file.
- The TICKS flag now also handles entry limits with
- Trade functions can now also be used for individual
- Price history files are not anymore automatically downloaded at the begin
of a new year - this confused beginners and was a bad idea anyway. Instead the
assetHistory function was implemented.
- A new broker plugin with the ForexConnect™ API interface has been
implemented. It provides a more stable connection than the previously used Order2Go™
- Logging in to the broker with several Zorro instances on the same PC will
now generate an error message.
- The Z1 / Z2 system components are now
optionally filtered with the results of an out-of-sample test with the real
trading parameters. This reduces the backtest performance, but should improve
the real trading performance.
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